Axial Seamount on the Juan de Fuca spreading center is the most magmatically robust volcano on the ridge, having erupted in 1998 and most recently in April 2011. It hosts numerous active hydrothermal fields and abundant sites of diffuse flow and it is one of the best-studied volcanoes along the global midocean ridge spreading center. Axial Volcano magmas contain extremely high carbon dioxide concentrations supporting a robust subseafloor biosphere and it is the only site where there is greater than decade-long time-series data documenting the evolution of microbial communities, and vent fluid chemistry and temperature following submarine volcanic eruptions. The summit of Axial Seamount was significantly transformed during the 2011 eruption with flows reaching nearly 3 km across the floor of the caldera, and > 8 km along the eastern fissure zone.
Bathymetry Map: Colored bathymetry texture created by the Center for Environmental Visualization
Bathymetry Data: MBARI AUV Data from D.Caress and D.Clague; EM302 Multi-beam from University of Washington